Wednesday, 24 July 2013

Have You Learned Nothing?

3:26PM BST 24 Jul 2013

Tougher sentences for paedophiles [sic] viewing indecent images

"People who download or view images of child abuse [sic] could receive stiffer sentences as part of a fresh [sic] Government plan to tackle sexual exploitation [?], a minister announced.

The murders of Tia Sharpe and April Jones, who were both killed by men who had viewed child abuse images [sic] online [and your point is?], has led to moves to block illegal pornography on the internet.

But Justice Minister Damian Green has said the Government will also consider stiffer punishments for those caught viewing indecent images in a bid to stamp out abuse. [hahahahaha]

Judges dealing with sexual offences are set to be given new sentencing guidelines in December, but Mr Green said the option for tougher sentences was kept under constant review." 

Research has suggested that there is a causal link between those who view indecent images and those who go on to directly abuse children." [really, where? - show us just one, credible, example] 

... and another ...

Published: 00:03, 7 July 2013 | Updated: 14:06, 7 July 2013

Fury as judge who gave Bulger killers secret identities casts doubt on links between child porn and sex crimes 

"‘There is no evidence that those who watch child porn go ahead and do it. Not to my knowledge. There may be evidence but I have not come across it.’

"Several academic studies and research by law enforcement agencies [ah] have found evidence of a link between child abuse images and sexual assaults.

Last year, the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre [now defunct] said there was ‘compelling evidence’ [expect there was not, in the report] that anyone in possession of abuse images should be seen as a threat to children. [not as much, as those who do not the difference, between correlation and causality]


Allow us ...


June 5, 2011

The Efficacy of Severe Child Pornography Sentencing: Empirical Validity or Political Rhetoric?

"This paper illustrates that sentencing policy would be better served if the interested parties rationally assessed the social science evidence indicating that most child pornography offenders fail to pose a substantial risk of contact offending against children and, thereby, substantively reconfigure the sentencing guidelines accordingly."


Public Safety, Individual Liberty, and Suspect Science: Future Dangerousness Assessments and Sex Offender Laws

"The significance of the conclusion reached in this article is clear: if the law continues to rely upon suspect science that results in the wrong individuals being subject to liberty-infringing sex offender laws, then the drain on criminal justice resources will leave the truly dangerous offenders without sufficient supervision at the risk of public safety."

March 24, 2010

Disentangling Child Pornography from Child Sex Abuse

"This Article identifies instances where possession of child pornography and child sex abuse have been conflated, critically evaluates the arguments that promote such conflation, and identifies independent concerns with conflation." 

October 4, 2011

The Invisible Man: How the Sex Offender Registry Results in Social Death

Published on Jul 30, 2014 

Melissa Hamilton: Federal Child Pornography Prosecutions


Studies on Federal Child Porn Offenders – Debunking the Myths



Public Safety, Individual Liberty, and Suspect Science: Future Dangerousness Assessments and Sex Offender Laws

Adjudicating Sex Crimes as Mental Disease

Melissa Hamilton


Sunday August 24, 2014 12:44 PM 

Child-porn sentencing questioned 

"What everyone wants to know, he said, is whether those who view child pornography have a greater tendency to molest children.

“The psychology of that is in its infancy, but right now, the data says no,” Nolder said." 


25 July 2014, 10.02am BST 

Severity and risk are not the same when it comes to indecent images of children

"In a forensic context, the term “risk” is used to describe the statistical and psychological likelihood that an individual will later commit a similar offence. For offenders convicted of child imagery offences though, the risk focus is not only the likelihood of reoffending but also the potential escalation to direct sexual abuse of a child.

To date, little is known about what makes people cross over from viewing images to committing child abuse. In fact, what little we do know indicates that, statistically, the risk of further offending or offence escalation appears to be low. One study compiled the reoffending rates of 2,630 offenders and found that 3.4% of people who committed an offence related to child images went on to commit another while 2% went on to commit a contact offence against children.

It may even be that an individual who views more serious images of child abuse might be at a lower risk of committing a direct contact offence than someone who develops sexual fantasies about innocent child imagery, which they may more frequently encounter in their daily activities.

There is also an assumption that all people viewing these images have a sexual interest in children and they are often described “paedophiles” in the press. Paedophilia is defined as “recurrent, intense and sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviours involving sexual activities with a pre-pubescent child or children” (generally meaning aged 13 or younger).  [plus, a little more]

However, there is evidence that some users also gain satisfaction from the collection process rather than the actual content of the images, while others may use the images to foster online social contacts. Others use them as a way to escape their real-life problems or to shock themselves, similar to how some people view beheadings or car crashes online. [stimulation and catharsis]"

Hannah Merdian - Lecturer of Forensic Psychology, School of Psychology at University of Lincoln


October 16 at 6:20 PM 

In defense of John Grisham  

"Second, as Jacob Sullum wrote in a guest post here at The Watch earlier this year, there just isn’t much evidence to support the notion that consumption of child porn makes people go on to violate children.

"The USSC found, based on criminal records and additional information in presentencing reports, that one in three federal defendants sentenced for non-production offenses in the previous decade had known histories of “criminal sexually dangerous behavior” (including prior child pornography offenses). Tracking 610 defendants sentenced in fiscal years 1999 and 2000 for eight and a half years after they were released, the USSC found that 7 percent were arrested for a new sexual offense."

Even allowing for the fact that many cases of sexual abuse go unreported (as indicated by victim surveys), it seems clear that some consumers of child pornography never abuse children. “There does exist a distinct group of offenders who are Internet-only and do not present a significant risk for hands-on sex offending,” says Karl Hanson, a senior research officer at Public Safety Canada who has co-authored several recidivism studies.

Why would anyone look at this horrible stuff if he was not inclined to imitate it? Troy Stabenow put it this way in a 2009 interview with ABA Journal: “People who watch movies like Saw and Friday the 13th are being titillated by the act of torture and murder. That doesn’t mean that they’re going to go out and commit torture and murder.”

In fact, as Sullum points out, some consumers of child porn are themselves victims of sexual abuse who view photos and videos as a form of therapy. That appears to have been the case with Ryan Loskarn, the congressional staffer who killed himself after he was arrested for possession child porn earlier this year. There’s also some evidence that legal access to virtual child porn (images produced without exploiting real-life children) may help prevent pedophiles from acting on their urges outside of cyberspace."



SMART: Executive Summary

"Internet offenders

Internet offenders are motivated by a sexual interest in children, but not all Internet offenders are pedophiles. Conventional contact sex offenders have a greater risk of sexual recidivism than online-only offenders."

Chapter 4: Internet-Facilitated Sexual Offending 

"Risk of Reoffending 

More research is needed, but an analysis of nine available followup studies suggests that Internet offenders, as a group, have a relatively low risk of reoffending compared to conventional contact sex offenders (based on official records, which are conservative estimates of recidivism because of reporting biases and other factors).

This has implications for how we respond to Internet offending, given that the risk principle of effective corrections would suggest that legal, policy, and clinical responses to Internet offenders should be proportional to risk.

The minority of offenders who have a higher risk of reoffending—based on age, criminal history, and other factors that are being identified in ongoing research—require different responses than offenders with no prior criminal history and clear evidence of stability and prosocial conduct in all other domains of their lives."

Contact Sexual Offending by Men With Online Sexual Offenses

"The results of these two quantitative reviews suggest that there may be a distinct subgroup of online-only offenders who pose relatively low risk of committing contact sexual offenses in the future."


Published: November 23, 2014

Local child sex [sic] prosecutions at record rate 

"The people who look at child pornography, Skuthan said, are not like other criminals.

“A very large percentage of our child pornography clients and child solicitation clients (who try to meet children over the Internet) have no prior criminal record,” he said. “They’re in their home when they’re downloading the child pornography. In most cases, when the FBI or law enforcement knocks on the door, these clients are tremendously cooperative and admit what they’re doing. If they refused to cooperate, they might not be prosecuted.”

Alderman said agents here have investigated people from all walks of life. “I’ve seen blue-collar and I’ve seen white-collar just as well, and married folks as well as someone you might think would be the typical person, social misfit,” she said.

The one characteristic everyone agrees on is that the offenders overwhelmingly are male.

Skuthan said his clients, overwhelmingly, have been “genuinely remorseful for what they have done” and comply with all treatment mandates and court requirements.

“In my opinion,” he said, “most of these defendants will never get involved in illegal activity again.”

Psychologist Eric Imhof has worked with sex offenders for more than 20 years. He said he generally works for the state and prosecutors seeking to confine sexually violent predators. But when it comes to child pornography viewers, Imhof said, he often works with defense lawyers.

He agreed that those viewing child porn come from diverse backgrounds. “I’ve evaluated police officers, attorneys, welders, ditch diggers. It runs the whole gamut,” he said.

Research suggests that only about 60 percent of the people who view child pornography could be diagnosed as pedophiles.

“But what about the other 40 percent?” Imhof said.

Sometimes alcoholism or depression or other mental disorders play a role, but not always. And Imhof noted that most people with those problems do not turn to child pornography.

Most of the people who view child pornography don’t have antisocial characteristics seen in violent predators, Imhof said. This keeps them from taking the next step and committing contact offenses against children, he said. It also leads them to “spill their guts” when law enforcement comes calling, confessing in full."


July 14, 2009 

Viewing child porn not a risk factor for future sex offenses: study

"For people without a prior conviction for a hands-on sex offense, the consumption of child pornography alone does not, in itself, seem to represent a risk factor for committing such an offense. Researchers writing in the open access journal BMC Psychiatry studied 231 men convicted of consuming child pornography in 2002 and found that only 1% had gone on to commit a hands-on sex offense in the following six years." 


The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending


Pornography and Sex Crimes in the Czech Republic


Legalizing Child Pornography reduces child sex abuse crimes (Scientific study by Dr. Milton Diamond, U. Hawaii)

Legalizing Pornography: Lower Sex Crime Rates? Study Carried out in Czech Republic Shows Results Similar to Those in Japan and Denmark

Legalizing child pornography is linked to lower rates of child sex abuse: study 


Is There a Link Between Child Pornography and Child Molestation?


The Effects of Child Pornography


Viewing child pornography does not seem to increase risk of abusing children, study concludes


No link between child porn and sexual abuse


Child Pornography Offender Characteristics and Risk to Reoffend


Psychological Profiles of Internet Sexual Offenders - Comparisons With Contact Sexual Offenders


Effects on Boy-Attracted Pedosexual Males of Viewing Boy Erotica


First, Treat Thyselves, Doctors ...


Contact Sexual Offending by Men With Online Sexual Offenses

"The results of these two quantitative reviews suggest that there may be a distinct subgroup of online-only offenders who pose relatively low risk of committing contact sexual offenses in the future."



Online Child Pornography Offenders are Different: A Meta-analysis of the Characteristics of Online and Offline Sex Offenders Against Children.


January 1, 2009

Deconstructing the Myth of Careful Study: A Primer on the Flawed Progression of the Child Pornography Guidelines

Thursday, March 13, 2014

[FREE WEBCAST] Getting Your Client a Fair Sentence in a Child Pornography Case

Friday, February 6, 2015

Representing the “Worst” Clients: Child Pornography Defendants (and what they can teach us about our other clients)

December 12, 2011

Method for Careful Study: A Proposal for Reforming the Child Pornography Guidelines

Troy K. Stabenow


The Implications of Recidivism Research and Clinical Experience For Assessing and Treating Federal Child Pornography Offenders: Written Testimony Presented to the U.S. Sentencing Commission

Federal Child Pornography Sentencing Guidelines in the United States


Assessing internet sex offenders


Are all online child pornography offenders the same?


Mike DeWine cites link between viewing child pornography and molestation cases


Inequitable Sentencing for Possession of Child Pornography: A Failure to Distinguish Voyeurs from Pederasts


Greater Than 30% Of IIOC Viewers Are 'Hands-On Paedos' - How Did This Mythology Arise?

CCNCR Materials

Relationship between child pornography and child sexual abuse  

[beware of confusions, created by variable usage, of the term, 'P(a)edophile'.] 


Trends in Arrests for Child Pornography Possession: The Third National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (NJOV‐3)


Characteristics of Internet Sexual Offenders - A Review


Child pornography possessors: Comparisons and contrasts with contact- and non-contact sex offenders

December 2012

Child pornography and the internet

"Possession of child pornography without a history of contact offenses does not appear to increase the risk of future contact reoffending."


Decided on June 10, 2014  

People v. Gillotti

"Further discussing his findings, Dr. Heffler noted that a recent study had indicated that child pornography users who do not commit "hands-on" offenses have only a 4% rate of committing such hands-on offenses in the future, which was "considerably lower" than the rate for other types of offenders."


Kathryn A. Rigler


March 2013

A brief look at the nature of offender resources on the Internet - Steve Chon


Published online before print November 12, 2014, doi: 10.1177/1079063214557173 Sex Abuse November 12, 2014 1079063214557173 

A Matter of Low Self-Control? Exploring Differences Between Child Pornography Possessors and Child Pornography Producers/Distributers Using Self-Control Theory 


"This study examined the demographic and background characteristic differences between those arrested for child pornography (CP) possession (only), or CP production/distribution, or an attempted or completed sexual exploitation of a minor (SEM) that involved the Internet in some capacity within the context of self-control theory using data from the second wave of the National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (N-JOV2).

Results indicate few demographic similarities, which thereby suggest these are largely heterogeneous groupings of individuals.

Results also indicate CP producers/distributers engaged in a greater number of behaviors indicative of low self-control compared with CP possessors.

Specifically, offenders arrested for CP production/distribution were more likely to have (a) had problems with drugs/alcohol at the time of the crime and (b) been previously violent. In contrast, the only indicator of low self-control that reached statistical significance for CP possessors was the previous use of violence.

Moreover, in contrast to CP producers/distributers, full-time employment and marital status may be important factors to consider in the likelihood of arrest for CP possessors, which is congruent with the tenets of self-control theory."


Megan Westenberg

University of Cincinnati College of Law,


September 2014

Child Exploitation Material in the Context of Institutional Child Sexual Abuse

Jeremy Prichard PhD & Caroline Spiranovic PhD



Presentation on Child Pornography to the United States Sentencing Commission (including Butner critique)

Richard Wollert, Ph.D

"Our findings with federal CPOs

∎ 4 years = average time at risk in the community
∎ 2 of 72 CPOs = apprehended for possessing child pornography
∎ 0% = arrests for child molestation or other contact sex offenses
∎ 92% = successfully completed supervision
∎ 14% = previously convicted of a contact sex offense
∎ 1 = average Static-99R score for the 72 person cohort
□ Actuarial table for 99R overestimates CPO recidivism rates
∎ 3 = average 99R score for 11 CPOs with prior contact offenses
□ 99R overestimates CPO recidivism rates
∎ 99R results confirm developers’ advice to avoid use with CPOs

Our results parallel Wakeling’s

∎ 1% of her CPOs had high actuarial scores
∎ 6.7% = sex recidivism rate for Generalist Sex Offenders
∎ 1.6% = sex recidivism rate for noncontact CPOs

The Weinstein Memo

∎ In U.S. v. C.R, Judge Weinstein requested a report on CPOs
∎ FPO Lawrence Andres prepared one for the EDNY
□ 108 = number of CPOs supervised from 1999 to 2011
□ 20% = disclosed sex crime with a minor victim not on their PSIs
□ Definition of minor victim: Someone under 18
□ 1 = committed a contact sex offense while under supervision
□ 87% = succeeded in not having their supervision revoked
□ Some NY self-report policies were like Bourke & Hernandez

Data in the Weinstein memo confirmed our results

∎ The base contact rate over 4 year is .6% (1/180 = .6%)
∎ EDNY CPOs made few new disclosures vs. the Butner CPOs
□ 20% v. 59% = statistically significant
□ Shows how easy it is to manipulate self-report
∎ Would nonsexual offenders report the same sex offense histories?

Five major conclusions from our research

∎ CPOs obtain low scores on Static-99R
∎ The recorded contact sex offense recidivism rate is Very Low
∎ About 15% = convicted of a contact offense before pornography
∎ About 90% = completed probation without being revoked
∎ Self-report data are susceptible to error


∎ Most CPOs do not meet criteria for Pedophilia, do not have “serious difficulty refraining from sexually violent conduct”
∎ Attempts to develop actuarials to identify past contact offenses or predict future contact offenses are unlikely to succeed
□ Wakeling = 1.6% rate for lower scores; 0% for higher scores
∎ CPOs are distinct and unlikely to recidivate


∎ Re-integrate CPOs into community sooner rather than later
∎ Compare a learning theory model with a paraphilia model
∎ Combat child pornography from a public health perspective as well as a criminological one."


December 13, 2014 12:00 pm

Guest Column: First-time child porn sentences too severe

"The latest research clearly disputes current misconceptions and shows that the recidivism rate for this type of crime is among the lowest of any criminal category. Studies by clinical psychologists indicate that the majority of men who view child pornography online do so for various reasons other than having a sexual attraction to young children or the desire for further sexual exploitation of minors: impulsiveness, poor parenting and home situations, childhood trauma, boredom, engaging in other delinquent or drug-addiction related activities, curiosity and simple lack of knowledge of what’s appropriate and illegal, etc. (Sarah Kliff ,“This Woman is Trying to Stop Juvenile Sex Offenders — by Helping Them,”

According to the U.S. Sentencing Commission Report on Child Pornography Sentencing (February 2010), this group of nonproduction child pornography offenses needs to be looked at differently from those involving the actual production of child pornography. Studies continue to indicate that any incarceration with hardened criminals for these nonproduction offenders does little to promote child safety. Instead of the “throw ’em in jail” mentality, a more effective strategy for first time, nonproduction CP offenders would focus on prevention, supervision and rehabilitation, rather than on the creation of thousands of lifelong criminals who have no hopes for rebuilding better futures. Attending mandatory counseling sessions to become more aware of the harm caused by these horrific acts that circulate over and over on the Internet would be more beneficial in promoting community safety."


Law and Human Behavior, Apr 6 , 2015

Predicting Recidivism Among Adult Male Child Pornography Offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT)

(Embedded Tweets - click date)


3 December 2013 

Anthony N. Doob and Rosemary Gartner 

Some Recent Research on Sex Offenders and Society’s Responses to Them 


22 January 2018

NatCen Social Research: Behaviour and Characteristics of Perpetrators of Online-facilitated Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation - A Rapid Evidence Assessment’.

Owens et al ...


6 Dec 2017

Child​ ​sexual​ ​abuse images​ ​online​ ​and risk​ ​of​ ​contact child​ ​sexual​ ​abuse


17th October, 2016




More, published evidence, to follow.


"Mr Green said it was important there was a “strong deterrent” for those considering searching for indecent images online. [no idea]

He said: “It's something we keep under constant review, increasing the tariff [?] for particular offences as a tough deterrent.” [no idea]

His comments came during a summit meeting [Groupthinkfest] of key players [sic] in the fight against sexual exploitation [?] and as the Government launched a national action plan [oh, this should be a classic] to help tackle the issue." 

We tweeted Martin Evans, the 'journalist'; here is a picture of laughing boy  ...

Martin Evans, Quoter of Non-Existent Research 


Sex offenders could face longer in jail 

Minister accelerates action to combat child sexual exploitation and abuse

War declared on paedo [sic] sex gangs 

Sex exploitation summit [Groupthinkfest] to be held

Damian Green rallies key players in fight against child abuse

Damian Green rallies key players in fight against child abuse

Hundred meet government to fight child abuse

Child exploitation talks follow Oxford grooming case


Tuesday 30 June 2015

'I found a million child porn pictures on my husband's computer - but it could happen to anyone'

"Last week, it was revealed that 750,000 men in Britain - one in 35 - may have an interest in having sex with children or viewing child porn images.

And, of that figure published by the National Crime Agency (NCA), as many as 250,000 men may be sexually attracted to children under 12.

Deputy director general of the NCA Phil Gormley has warned that there are so many paedophiles [sic] "the reality is we are all living not far away from one."

And Donald Findlater, from the Lucy Faithfull Foundation, which offers help to paedophiles [sic], isn't surprised by the research.

He adds: "I think the figures are probably accurate, but the majority of these men would never act on their urges.""

(Embedded tweet - click date)


In these pieces, see how the mission creep, of lies and disinformation, is used by the courts, so as to challenge and change the USA constitutional issue of 'probable cause' ...


Establishing the Nexus: The Definitive Relationship [sic] Between Child Molestation and Possession of Child Pornography as the Sole Basis for Probable Cause

"Child sexual offenders [sic] often sexually exploit children through the collection, creation, or distribution of child pornography. Up to one quarter of child molesters collect child pornography [and, would you expect anything else?].

This number increases each day as the Internet continues to make collection of child pornography more readily accessible. Accordingly, “[c]hild pornography, especially that produced by the offender [duh], is one of the most valuable pieces of evidence of child sexual victimization any investigator can have.”

In the last half decade, federal courts of appeals have issued a handful of conflicting opinions as to whether evidence of child molestation, alone, creates probable cause for a search warrant for child pornography [tail wagging the dog]. Part II of this Comment paves a background of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence necessary for this discussion."


The madness of law ...


Child Pornography and Child Molestation: One and the Same or Separate Crimes?

"Congressional findings underlying the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 state that child sexual abusers often use child pornography to “stimulate and whet their own sexual appetites.”

Possession of child pornography and the act of child molestation are separate crimes; however, contemporary studies have highlighted a correlation [ah] between the principal behaviors of both.

Recent federal appellate court decisions have resulted in divergent holdings, some of which are inconsistent with these studies [how 'fortunate'].

These decisions affect the federal circuit courts by blurring the threshold used to determine when probable cause under the Fourth Amendment is established in cases involving evidence of child sexual exploitation crimes.

The Eighth Circuit held in United States v. Colbert that evidence of defendant’s attempt to entice a young girl supported probable cause to search defendant’s home for child pornography.

The court found that probable cause existed because “individuals sexually interested in children frequently utilize child pornography to reduce the inhibitions of their victims [which was false, of course] ”"

Friday, November 7, 2014

Troubling Interpretation of Sex Offender Registration Statute

"In Eugene Ionesco's absurdist play "The Bald Soprano" a character talks about a husband and wife named Bobby and Bobby Watson whom no one could tell apart because they had the same name. In People v. Gillotti, the Court of Appeals has applied similar logic to hold that "victim" under the Sex Offender Registration Act (SORA) is identical to "victim" in tort cases where persons depicted in child pornography can seek damages from mere viewers.

Gillotti accordingly holds that anyone convicted of possessing multiple images of child pornography has multiple "victims" and therefore presents the same future risk to public safety as someone who has sexually assaulted multiple children. The majority sees no absurdity in this. Rather, it asserts that any other result would violate the "plain language" of SORA. But plain language interpretation does not mean that just because two things have the same name they cannot be told apart.

After Gillotti, more and more people will be classified as high-risk "sex offenders" based on less and less evidence. The resulting restrictions and stigma inflict needless misery on ex-offenders and their families, while the empirical data shows that these measures do nothing to promote public safety. One can only hope that someday a more enlightened view will prevail."

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